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Internationalization (i18n)

Making the World Wide Web worldwide!


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The W3C Internationalization (I18n) Activity works with W3C working groups and liaises with other organizations to make it possible to use Web technologies with different languages, scripts, and cultures. From this page you can find articles and other resources about Web internationalization, and information about the groups that make up the Activity. Read also about the opportunities to participate and fund work via the new Sponsorship Program.

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Article published: Internationalization tips for linking to headings & figures

If you are linking to headings and figures for a page that will be translated into another language, or for a multilingual page, this article looks at things you need to bear in mind and provides markup templates that will be helpful.

Read the article.

For review: Internationalization tips for linking to headings & figures

The article Internationalization tips for linking to headings & figures is out for wide review. We are looking for comments by Tuesday 6 July.

If you are linking to headings and figures for a page that will be translated into another language, or for a multilingual page, this article looks at things you need to bear in mind and provides markup templates that will be helpful.

Please send any comments as github issues by clicking on this link, or on “Leave a comment” at the bottom of the article. (This will add some useful information to your comment.)

New translations into French

These articles were translated into French thanks to Jean-Christophe Helary, of K.K. DOUBLET.

New translations into French

These articles were translated into French thanks to Jean-Christophe Helary, of K.K. DOUBLET.

First Public Working Draft, “Strings on the Web: Language and Direction Metadata “

A First Public Working Draft of Strings on the Web: Language and Direction Metadata was published.

This document describes practices for identifying language and base direction for strings used on the Web. It was developed as a result of observations by the Internationalization Working Group over a series of specification reviews related to formats based on JSON, WebIDL, and other non-markup data languages. Unlike markup formats, such as XML, these data languages generally do not provide extensible attributes and were not conceived with built-in language or direction metadata.

The concepts in this document are applicable any time strings are used on the Web, either as part of a formalised data structure, but also where they simply originate from JavaScript scripting or any stored list of strings.

Public comments are welcome, please raise them as github issues.

Comments Off on First Public Working Draft, “Strings on the Web: Language and Direction Metadata “

New resource: Short i18n review checklist

The Short i18n review checklist points developers of specifications to various aspects of a spec that may need internationalization review. It can also be used by spec reviewers, to get an idea of what to look for in a spec.

Only 12 items long, it follows the format: if the spec or its implementation does X then check Y, and points to the relevant parts of the detailed checklist for more information.

It’s not exhaustive, but it hits the main topics that regularly arise when spec developers are wondering whether their spec may have internationalization issues. If you have comments or questions, please use the GitHub issue list.

Working Group Note: Character Model for the World Wide Web: String Matching

The Internationalization Working Group at the W3C has published a new Working Group Note. Character Model for the World Wide Web: String Matching provides authors of specifications, software developers, and content developers a common reference on string identity matching on the World Wide Web and thereby increase interoperability.

String identity matching is the process by which a specification or implementation defines whether two string values are the same or different from one another. It describes the ways in which texts that are semantically equivalent can be encoded differently and the impact this has on matching operations important to formal languages. Topics include normalization and case folding.

One new, one updated article published

Types of language declaration describes how ‘metadata’ and ‘text-processing’ language declarations differ.

HTTP headers, meta elements and language information has been updated to read better, and the information that was to become the previously mentioned article was removed.

Updated article: Character encodings: Essential concepts

This article introduces a number of basic concepts needed to understand other articles that deal with characters and character encodings.

The article has been updated with explanations of the terms ‘user-perceived character’, ‘grapheme-cluster’, ‘typographic character unit’, and ‘glyph’, and a warning about the vague use of the term ‘character’.

Read the article Character encodings: Essential concepts.

Article published: Approaches to line-breaking

This article gives a high level summary of various typographic strategies for wrapping text at the end of a line, for a variety of scripts.

Read the article.


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